Phalaenopsis orchids have high economic value in the floriculture industry. In this chapter, plantlet production in Phalaenopsis orchids via the culture of protocorms from seeds and protocorm-like bodies from leaf sections and root tips are detailed. Vegetative propagation of elite. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Micropropagation of Orchids: Third Edition | This is a three volume book. Copies are not available for free. PDF | Context: Orchid produces a huge number of minute seeds but the seeds can not germinate easily in nature due to the lack of endosperm.

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Divided into three volumes, Micropropagation of Orchids Third Edition retains the exhaustive list of micropropagation protocols for many genera. Although orchid micropropagation has shown great are widely used in micropropagation of orchids, as well as the concentrations of these. Chapter 20 Micropropagation of Phalaenopsis Orchids via Protocorms and Protocorm-Like Bodies Kee Yoeup Paek, Eun Joo Hahn, and So Young Park.

Dilute or bring volume to 1 liter in a volumetric flask using distilled water. Transfer to brown glass bottle and label. Be careful with the said chemicals, they are corrosive.

Add 60 ml concentrated HCl analytical reagent to approximately ml distilled water in a volumetric flask drop by drop Be careful, the solution is corrosive. Mix by stirring briskly. Dilute or bring the volume to 1 liter by adding distilled water. In pipetting out the pure HCl for dilution, do this inside a fume hood.

Vitamins used in orchid embryo culture includes Vitamin B complexes which help in the cells' metabolism. Vitamin B complex from drug stores can also be used. Weigh the following and dissolve in ml distilled water.

Add enough distilled water to make a ml solution in a volumetric flask. Folic acid will not usually dissolve. Adjust pH to 7. A clear transparent solution will result. Store vitamin stock in a brown bottle and inside the refrigerator. Use 10 mL of this stock to make 1 Liter media.

To make the stock solution, dissolve 5 grams of Myo- inositol powder in enough distilled water to make a ml solution. Use 10 ml of this stock in making 1 liter media. Store the solution in a brown bottle and in a refrigerator. Get ml of this and place in a ml beaker. Excess coconut water is stored by placing it in a plastic container and stored in freezer.

Pour 50 mL each of the Knudson C stock into the beaker. Pour 20 grams sugar and mix thoroughly with a glass rod. Add the vitamin stock into the media. Add Myo-Inositol stock into the media 6. Osterize the tomatoes until a puree is produced. Strain the seeds and add the content into the media. Weigh the agar and place in into a separate container. It is mixed with about ml distilled water in a glass Pyrex beaker or a small sauce pan.

The mixture is made to boil in a magnetic hotplate stirrer or a stove until the agar is cooked. The agar mixture is then added to the media. Enough water is added up to the 1 L mark. The mixture is mixed thoroughly. The pH is adjusted to 5. The media is then dispensed into catsup bottles or Erlenmeyer flasks. Seal the bottles with metal or plastic caps. Wrap the caps with paper sheets by using rubber bands. Sterilize the bottles in a pressure cooker at 15 psi for 30 minutes.

Place sterilized culture bottles in the culture room to cool. Get ml of coconut water and place in a ml beaker. Pour 50 ml each of the Knudson C stock into the beaker. Add 20 grams sugar and mix thoroughly with a glass rod. Osterize the bananas a homogenate is produced. Add the contents into the media. Add the activated carbon powder and mix. Add enough water up to the 1 L mark. Mix the media thoroughly. Pour 50 mL each of the Knudson C stock into the a 1 Liter beaker.

Add mL coconut water pH should be 5. Add 10 mL of ppm BA 4. The solution is mixed thoroughly. The media is then dispensed into ketsup bottles or Erlenmeyer flasks. Bottles are covered with cotton plugs or rubber stoppers.

Sterilize the bottles in a pressure cooker for 30 minutes at 15 psi and oC. Selection, Sterilization and Explant Isolation 1. Select a healthy newly emerging shoot from the base of a Dendrobium cane. Excise the bud with a sharp knife or scalpel. Wash with detergent and tap water. In a sterile petri dish, rinse three times with sterile distilled water.

Excise the shot tip and axilary buds. Sterilize explants in 0. Wash in sterile distilled water. Drop explant in sterile liquid medium. Place culture bottles in rotary shaker II. Reflask initial culture in liquid medium every weeks. Agitate in rotary shaker. When protocorm-like bodies are formed, transfer a small portion to individual flasks. At the stage where the protocorms are available in a large number e. Add 10 mL of ppm BA stock.

Add 10 mL of ppm Kinetin stock 5. Select and cut a young inflorescence with undifferentiated buds not more than 5 cm. Long 2. Wash well with detergent and tap water. Rinse three times with sterile distilled water. Remove outer bracts surrounding the bud in sterile petri dish.

Cut young flower bud into 0. Add 20 g. Add 10 ml of ppm NAA stock. The media is then dispensed at 10 ml each in test tubes.

They are then covered with cotton plugs or rubber stoppers.


Incline sterilized test tubes in the culture room to cool. Select a mature flower spike whose flower has just wilted. Wash the stalk with detergent and water 3. Cut the stalk into sections from 1 cm to 2 cm length. Each cutting must have a node. Wash the stalk with sterile distilled water three times 7.

Dip the portion of cuttings in a test tube with the culture medium. Place in the culture room. Wait for emergence of plantlets. Protocorm-like bodies may be transferred in a solid medium for more proliferation with: Axillary buds or meristems from 2 to 5 cm shoots. Wash the shoot in tap water and detergent. Dip the shoot in ethyl alcohol for 10 seconds. Rinse briefly in sterile distilled water and dry on sterile petri dish.

Under a dissecting microscope, remove carefully the overlapping leaves. To help prevent browning, dissect under fresh sterile antioxidant solution. Watch for buds about 2 mm in size at the base of the leaves.

Excise the Whole buds, severing just below the point of attachment. These may be cultured, or dissected further to obtain meristem with one or two pairs of leaf primordia.

Best started in agitated liquid medium but agar solidified medium is often satisfactory and required for stage III. Cattleyas multiply better in liquid than on agar, at least initially. The theoretical reason is that the agitation inhibits polarity orientation. Once polarity is established, the cultures put out shoots and roots and mature. The initial growth that is desired for multiplication is a mass of protocorms. As soon as this mass grows to 1 cm it should be divided and put back into liquid or agar medium.

When the culture is on agar frequent division will help upset orientation and delay plantlet formation.. Remove outer leaves from 3 cm shoots. Rinse in sterile distilled water. Remove remaining leaves. Excise meristem consisting of apical dome, two leaf primordia, and a cube of tissue, all less than 0. Place the culture bottles inside the laminar flow hood.

The UV lamp and airflow are then turned ON for 30 minutes. Afterwards, turn off the UV light and bring in the washed dry pods, sterilized Petri dishes, scalpel, and forcep.

Mature orchid pod is washed with detergent e. Teepol and running water. Inspect pod for holes, insect damage or rotting. At this stage, all manipulation is done inside the laminar flow. In a sterile Petri dish, the pod is placed and cut crosswise or lengthwise depending on size of pod. The ovules white, yellow or light yellow-brown in color are scrapped off inoculated into the germinating media. Accession numbers can be used. The bottles are placed in lighted culture shelves.

After one week, contaminated cultures are removed and sterilized decontaminated with procedure similar to sterilizing fresh culture media. After 3 weeks, viable ovules will show signs of germination enlargement of ovules and greening. After 2 months or when protocorms are 1 cm long, cultures are ready for reflasking. Dry Pod Culture In this process, dried orchid seeds orchid capsules are open are used. This process is usually injurious to orchid seeds and less seeds germinate compared to green pod culture.

Place the pod over a clean sheet of white paper. Tap the pod over the paper to release the dust-like seeds. Place seeds into a vial or test tube with cap. Mix grams sugar in ml water. Then place the solution into the vial or test tube with seeds and add a drops Tween 40 or detergent it serves as a surfactant. Cap and shake the test tube until the seeds are submerged or fully wet.

Let the seeds in the solution for hours. This technique will germinate any bacterial or fungal spores in the seed and it will make them susceptible to the sterilizing solution afterwards. Cap and shake vigorously and let it stay there for 10 minutes.

Let seeds settle down. A centrifuge could be very helpful in settling seeds down in the bottom of the test tube 6. Wash the seeds 3 times with sterile distilled water. At the last washing, leave a little sterile distilled water, and pour the seed and water mixture into the germinating media. Place the flask into culture shelves exposed to 16 hours light per day.

Some orchids like Paphiopedalum requires darkness and cold temperature in order to germinate. Observe for seed germination or contamination. The technique is rather time consuming, however, it solves the problem of the floating seeds usually associated with the technique using a test tube or vial.

Obtain or collect dry orchid seeds in a bottle or piece of paper. Cut 2 inches X 2 inches filter paper squares it need not be sterile. The fold the filter paper squares in half lengthwise or cross wise.

Fold the filter paper square in half, enveloping the seeds. Fold the sides and top of the folded filter paper square 2x to seal the enveloped seeds. Fasten the two tips of the envelope using a stapler. Do not puncture a hole into the envelope, just fasten the topmost right and left corner of the envelope with the staple wire.

Inside a laminar flow hood, place the filter paper envelope in a sterile petri dish. Pour enough to cover the filter paper envelope, about half the level of the petri dish. Slightly agitate the petri dish to mix the solution with the envelope. Do this for 15 to 20 minutes. The orchid seeds will now slightly change its color, as being bleached by the chlorox solution. After 15 - 20 minutes, decant the sterilizing solution and wash the filter paper envelope in sterile distilled water 3x in the same Petri dish.

Use sterile forcep in moving the filter paper envelope. Allow the filter paper envelop with the seeds to dry up in the air flow inside the laminar flow hood for about 4 hours.

Let it stay in the petri dish and place a glass cover slightly open to allow the sterile air from the laminar flow hood to enter the Petri dish. When the filter paper envelope is completely dry, remove the staple wires to open the seal of the envelope using a sterile forcep and scalpel. A sterile surgical scissors can also be used to cut the paper open. Carefully hold the filter paper envelop over an opened culture bottle, using a sterile forcep, and gently tap the envelope to release the powder like-orchid seeds into the flask containing orchid germinating media..

Cap the bottle and label. Place the bottle in a lighted shelf inside the culture room. The orchid seeds will germinate after 3 weeks. Discard any contaminated cultures. Subculture the orchid protocorms after 2 months into flasks containing fresh reflasking media. The culture bottles are placed inside the transfer chamber or laminar flow, together with bottles with fresh reflasking media. They are then permitted to cool for 1 minute. Culture bottles with protocorms are uncapped and the mouth of the bottle is flamed over the alcohol lamp.

Using sterile scooper, protocorms are removed from the bottle and subcultured into bottle with fresh media. After one week, contaminated cultures are removed and sterilized. Growth of the orchid protocorms into plantlets are checked regularly.

When plantlets are about three 3 centimeter tall, they are ready for acclimatization and compotting. The cultures will stay here for 1 month before they could be compotted. For some, the decreasing amount of moisture in the medium as the water is gradually absorbed by the plant will also help in the adjusting process.

Using a forcep or spoon-like tool, the plantlets are scooped out of the bottles. Care must be observe so that roots would not be damaged.

For others, cheap glass bottles like catsup or Gilbeys bottles, are wrapped with newspaper or masking tape, and cracked open using a hammer in order to ease the retrieval of plants. Place the plantlets into a basin of water to easily remove and clean the clinging agar media from the roots. It is needed to completely remove the agar media or else it will attract fungal diseases and ants.

The plantlets are then dipped in a dilute solution of fungicide either Dithane or Captan and with a few drops of Rooting Hormone Root Booster, Hormex or others for 3 minutes. The plantlets are then sorted out base on size and placed on a sheet of old news paper to dry.

The charcoal and tree fern roots are previously sterilized by boiling them in water for 30 minutes. Then, the plantlets are arranged into the community pots, with their roots embedded in the chopped tree fern and their leaves or stems upright.

Their roots does not need to be inserted too deep into the chopped tree fern. There should be about 15 — 25 plantlets depending on the size of the plant per community pot. Enough chopped tree fern roots are added to cover the roots of seedlings in the community pots. Potting medium used are just chopped tree fern chips or pre-soaked and sterilized coconut husk.

Plantlets are arranged singly with their roots carefully pressed in between two tree fern chips or coconut husks. The pots are then sprayed with water and placed inside clear plastic bags and closed with rubber bands. After one week, the plastic bag is opened but not removed. A weak solution of orchid foliar fertilizer is applied 2 weeks after, when new root tips have appeared.

Bright light is the key factor in the successful adjustment of the seedlings. Vandas, Oncidiums, Cattleyas and Dendrobiums need more light compared to Phalaenopsis. Once the seedlings in compots are large enough, they can be transferred to single pots. For seedlings in single pots, they can be transferred later on to larger sized pots when they have outgrown their container. Seedlings need to be watered everyday, sprayed with fungicide and fertilizer once a week and need to be regularly inspected for occurrence of pest and diseases.

Some of these are: There are many techniques in compotting orchids from flasks, thus, one has to adjust and adapt the technique that will suit in your garden or nursery. Many of the orchid species are endemic and have become parents of some of the beautiful and colorful orchid hybrids of today. Orchids have been a favorite houseplant for Filipinos due to their beautiful flowers, its exoticness and mystery.

Due to this, Europeans in the 's searched through our forests. They have now living specimens of almost all of our species.

Most of our orchid species are sought after my foreign orchid collectors and value them very much. Some noteworthy orchid species worth collecting: Amesiella philippinensis, Aerides quinquevulnera, Arachnis longicaulis, Ascocentrum miniatum, Bulbophyllum spp. Vanda sanderiana var. In any given place, there could be about thousands to millions of orchids clinging high up in tree branches, in shaded forest floors, in open grasslands, in large rocks near rivers or the sea, or in limestone cliffs.

In their natural habitat, orchids reproduce successfully on their own, without human intervention. This due to the fact that their natural pollinator is present and also with the help of a symbiotic fungus or mycorrhiza which provide nourishment to the germinating seeds. Some orchid species literally grow wild like weeds, wherein they overly populate some tree branches together with some ferns and other epiphytes.

Also the fact that orchids produce thousands to millions of seeds, thus, they could successfully repopulate orchid collecting areas as long as the area is not destroyed. However, some of our orchid species have become threatened due to the destruction of their natural habitats and the conversion of these forests into agricultural, industrial or residential areas.

On the other hand, some orchid species are only found growing in certain areas e. Paphiopedilum anitum. They are found only in specific sites, very hard to find, and are very difficult to cultivate them out of its habitat. The rarity of some orchids and its high demand prompted the increase of prices of some orchid plants. And because of these, more people are attracted to conduct widespread and indiscriminate collection in the forest.

Without a halt and caution, in this widespread collection and destruction of its habitat, some orchid species will certainly become threatened or extinct. Philippine orchids are national treasures and it is the obligation of Filipinos to conserve them for future generations. Conservation is a very big issue and a word not very much understood.

This is an international agreement prohibiting or regulating the trade and sale of threatened or endangered species from one country into another.

It was first organized to protect endangered animals, and now include plants. Every member country the Philippines is one of its signatories has adopted its own conservation policies patterned after CITES. The following taxa were listed in Appendix I at the time of publication: The group has more than 90 members worldwide.

Also, conservation laws of different countries still have many problems and loopholes which when analyzed, actually does not protect orchids in the wild, or sometimes are not practical in today's highly technological age. One example is the law that prohibits collecting endangered or threatened orchid species from the wild. If the site where the orchids orchids growing in big trees or located near river are growing will be cleared off for agricultural development, construction of highway, be flooded for dam building or threatened by flood or volcanic eruption, then surely the that orchid is doomed.

Sometimes, orchid in the wild are threatened by introduced pests and diseases, or its pollinators are now absent due to the use of pesticides, and these will surely affect their natural way of reproduction. Another is the fact that orchids produced thousands or millions of seeds, and by just reproducing them in the laboratory, could surely repopulate the forest.

The Philippines must adopt its own version of orchid conservation plan which is practical. Through orchid societies, like the Philippine Orchid Society, information on orchid conservation could be disseminate to Filipinos. By coordinating with government offices, protection of the orchids' natural habitat could be done and plans for mass propagation started. Here are some conservation recommendations for conserving endangered and threatened orchid species including other plants from the Orchid Conservation Committee of the Philippine Orchid Society: Identify which orchid are endangered, threatened, and which are not.

Once the data is produced, the group could concentrate on which orchid species will be prioritized for mass-propagation. Embryo culture is a powerful tool in mass producing orchids. It is a fact that orchids produce thousands to millions of dust-like seeds per plant.

If enough orchid plants could be pollinated and produce a capsule, the seeds could be grown in designated plant tissue culture laboratories and could be later be used to re-stock the forest or the ones used for trade.

With this, the habitat where the orchid species are collected will not be touched.. Priorities could be given to endangered and threatened species and also to those highly demanded for trade. Knowledge with breeding and genetics is a requirement in this in order to prevent producing weak and inferior plants. Also, learn how to vegetatively divide your plants. Both private and government sectors could be tapped for this.

In collecting specimens from the forests, do not get all the plants. As much as possible, be responsible enough to get only the seedlings, and leave enough matured plants that could survive and reproduce for the next generation. Protect natural habitats of orchids. The main problem of orchid conservation is habitat destruction. Let us support in the creation of national parks and nature reserves.

Salvage plants from damaged or threatened areas. Do travel in areas where there are forest clearing to give way to road building, logging, dam building, agricultural development, mining, etc.

Establish rescue centers for salvaged or confiscated plants. Do create centers in coordination with the local orchid society and the government which will care for salvaged or confiscated plants, and where the plants could be used for education, propagation and conservation purposes.

The center needs to be well equipped with physical facilities like a nursery, greenhouse, a laboratory and technical expertise. Help create new habitats from damaged areas, including urban environments. This could be in the form of small parks or conservatories, wherein a small patch of land could be protected for the growth of its native orchid species and other plants.

Within this new habitats, orchid species which are found naturally, could then be reintroduced. These sites could later be used for eco-tourism. Educate the amateur collectors to collect only for their own and to follow a certain code of collecting plants. Amateur collectors need to be trained not to collect indiscriminately, from the wild, and always follow the code of orchid conservation ethics. Collect only a number of plants per each species which you can take care off.

Do salvage orchids from threatened areas and learn to cultivate them. Educate native orchid traders on how to take care of the plants. Traders need to be taught on how to take care of the plants they trade, and to establish the plants before selling them in the cities. Also, they need to be taught on how to divide plants for propagation, and also how to establish plants in their nursery.

Also, they need to learn potting techniques, controlling pests and diseases and how to rejuvenate stressed plants, specially those that are not sold. There are cool-upland growing and lowland-warm growing orchids.

download and collect only the plants that will grow well and flower in your place. Also, download only plants that are well-rooted, well-established, and free from pest and diseases. Grow Your Plants Well. Resolve to give your plants the best possible culture. Apply fertilizers and pesticides, and provide the necessary environment for your plants. If you do not have success with a certain species, learn how others succeed with it before obtaining another plant.

Share Your Plants. The best insurance for your rare species or clone is a division of it in another's care. Be willing to share divisions, and trade with other growers.

Consider propagating seed from rare plants in your collection. Networking through your local orchid organization is an ideal way to meet interested participants. Excess plants could also be donated or sold to other orchid enthusiasts. You could also trade or change pollinia, seeds, seedlings, or matured plants with other growers here or around the world.

Protect Your Collection. In addition to sharing your plants, you should protect your collections by providing structures or gadgets for the healthy growth of your plants like a small slat-house or greenhouse, humidifiers, providing proper ventilation in your garden, a secured fence, practice sanitation and integrated pest management to prevent disease and pest out-break. Do not disclose the localities where threatened orchid species are collected, especially to people whom you do not have utmost confidence.

A sure way to destroy an existing orchid habitat is by reporting nationally or internationally that a certain orchid species is found in a certain locality.

This will prompt collectors to go to this place over-collect all the orchid plants until there is nothing left, and sometimes destroying the whole area as well due to colonization of people. Plan for Emergencies. Many collections are lost when the owner or caretaker, for various reasons, is unable to care for them. Plan for these events.

Leave written instructions on how to take care of your plants if leaving the plants to someone. Indicate which plant is rare or important. Designate a contact person who grows orchids well for family members to contact in the event of your disability or death, and plan ahead for how plants should be disbursed or disposed of, so that important plants are not simply lost.

Educate the people and provide orchid conservation awareness information through various means. Education is still the best tool to implement orchid conservation. Conservation advocacy could be done through print, radio and tv media. The best people to teach are the children and also the once who are fond of plants. Create linkages with other conservation groups. People doing conservation or orchid research could have more advantages by linking or networking with other groups locally or abroad.

They could tap individuals specializing in certain genera of orchids, institutions doing orchid research, government or orchid societies. With this, funding, information, and facilities could be shared.

Be Vocal on Conservation Issues. Be willing to speak out in support of conservation. This could be in the form of writing letters to editorial boards, contacting elected representatives, supporting local and national legislation, help revise government policies which is against conservation and speaking out in your community on conservation issues.

Also, stay active in your local orchid society, and help it to pursue conservation issues. Report to appropriate authorities illegal activities that could result in the destruction of orchids and their habitats, including illegal collection on public lands. Support Orchid Researches. There is much to learn about orchids. This includes orchid biology and physiology, taxonomic classification, identifying new species, information on orchid habitat, orchid geographical distribution, cultivation, propagation, genetic diversity, pollinators, the orchid-mycorrhizal relationship, and others.

By being part of these researches, information dissemination or help in allocating funds for such research would greatly help in orchid conservation. It is also a multi-million dollar business around the world, with large corporations solely devoted in the production of specific orchid hybrids used for the cut-flower and flowering potted plant business.

Plant propagation technique like micropropagation has greatly revolutionized the way these plant group has been produced, and thus, has helped in the development of the business. Main Uses of Orchids 1. Cut-flower trade -- the large and colorful orchid flower like the Cattleya, Cymbidium, Dendrobium and Vanda are ideal for corsage, bridal bouquets, arm band, in flower arrangements, and also for lei or garland.

Flowering potted plant — another use of orchid plants is the production of flowering potted plants for home and office use. These plants are used as accents in the home and office, to provide color in center tables, hallways, corners, lobbies, bedrooms, conference areas, and the garden. Landscape material — orchids are now used as a landscaping plant for public parks, botanical gardens, indoor and outdoor pocket gardens, especially during orchid and garden shows.

Micropropagation of Orchis catasetum - a rare and endangered orchid.

For Business — with the wide demand of orchids locally and abroad, various plant propagating nurseries were established to mass produce a regular supply of flowering orchids — both species and hybrids — to people in the cities for their orchid needs. With these, orchids are produced like in an assembly line like factories, starting with the systematic breeding of orchids, germination of the seeds in sterile laboratories, acclimatization and growing of the seedlings to maturity in the nurseries, scheduled flower induction of plants, and marketing.

The orchid is a high value crop mass-produced to cater the demand of various clientele. Main Orchid Types Traded in the Country.


Vanda 2. Dendrobium 5.

Cattleya group 6. Paphiopedilum 7. Spathoglottis 8. Grammatophyllum 9. Cymbidiums Oncidiums These are as follows: The plant will prefer a slightly brighter location to full sun. Light is the most important element in the successful production of orchids. Based on the type of orchid, the plant will prefer exposure to morning sun and could tolerate direct sun, but must be protected from it during very hot months.

Sunlight can be filtered using layers of net 8 feet above the plants during the summer period. Altitude is also a factor which influence light intensity. As a general rule, terete Vanda, Spathoglottis and Oncidium can thrive on direct sun. Orchid plants prefer and tolerates a little bit drier condition. Vandas and most monopodial orchids , and once every third day or once a week sympodial orchids , just as long as the surroundings and companion plants are kept moist to provide high humidity.

However, as a grower, one has to look at how the plants reacts to watering, and thus, needs to be adjusted accordingly. If the plants are becoming dehydrated due to intense heat, it may be much proper to water them times a day.

Plants needs to be grouped together based on watering requirements. Moreover, these plants need to be protected from excessive monsoon rains through the establishment of a plastic-covered greenhouse, as prolonged moisture can cause rotting and attract pests and diseases.

With these, there is little risk that the plant will rot due to excess moisture. The plant can also tolerate a little bit of dryness as contributed by its windy surroundings.

Ventilation or air movement can be done planning the position of the greenhouse to the direction of the seasonal monsoon wind or by providing artificial air movement. These plants are best potted on plastic, clay or hardwood baskets hanging , tree fern slabs, or in drift woods, with their root well exposed to air.

They can also be grown in coarse brick and charcoal mixtures in pots on benches, or hanging, in which case they can also be grown in hardwood baskets with little or no pot-ting mixture required.

The roots are thick and will grow out of the pot or other container; hanging plants often develop a mass of pendent aerial roots.

Such plants do well, but the potting medium must retain moisture for a particular time, provide nutrients as well as serve as a stable anchorage for roots.. In the commercial production of orchids, diluted commercial orchid foliar fertilizers are highly recommended to be sprayed once a week, usually after watering in order to provide a regular supply of nutrients to the plants.

Organic fertilizers can also be used, however, make sure that they are well-decomposed or well-processed or else they may pose problems like attracting flies, insect pests and diseases.

Other forms of fertilizers may include diluted milk source of calcium and amino acids , brown sugar during monsoon rains , fish emulsions, vermi-cast tea from earthworms and others. Orchids can be propagated sexually and asexually. The best way of propagation is still through production of seeds. Chosen parent materials are pollinated and allowed to produce seed capsules. Seed capsules are harvested when mature and are sown in an artificial culture media in the laboratory till the seeds germinates and develop into complete plantlets.

Asexually, orchids can also be propagated by top cutting, division, or separation of keikis. Sterilize all cutting instruments by washing with them in soap and water and squabbling with isopropyl alcohol before using it to prevent transfer of viruses.

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Top-cuts are repotted on plastic or wooden baskets or clay pots with charcoal. Seal wounds with fungicide paste and divided plants are usually not watered for 3 days to prevent rotting and for the wound to heal..

Plants can now be water afterwards to induce establishment of roots. Different Approaches in the Orchid Business Commercial Orchid Trader — these group downloads and sells plants locally, or may also export and import plants.

They usually download wholesale then distributes them on a retail basis. They usually have plant stores strategically positioned in garden centers in major cities. They are concentrated on the business aspect of orchids. They also have a wide connection and linkages and are usually located in a particular province. They collect native orchid plants directly from the forest usually in areas with logging activities , together with other epiphytes, ferns, palms, and other ornamental plants cultivated in the area e.

Some have learned to cultivate and propagate their selected traded plant species and selected varieties. They are also concentrated on the business aspect of orchids. They are expert in growing and flower inducing the plants, and have lots of manpower for the various farm operations needed for the successful maintenance and fast- propagation of selected hybrids and species important for trade.

Usually they may either sell on their own or get the help of orchid traders in selling their produce. For some, they may specialize in the laboratory seedlings ; in the nursery seedlings to mature plants , or in the greenhouse maintenance and flowering of orchids.

They usually have limited number of plants, maybe plants per kind and are usually grown in the home backyard. They just grow plants for the sake of the hobby, but some may ocassionally sell their propagations..

Some maybe be able to breed their orchids to produce seedlings. They are often times very reliable in maintaining plants for very long periods of time.

Florist — These are individuals who have artistic inclinations in arranging orchid cut-flower in bouquets or in arrangements. They may or may not have flower shops. They usually download cut-flowers and cut-foliage from growers and offer flower arrangement services for clients.

Rent-A-Plant Business — These are individuals who may grow their own plants or just download plants from growers, repot them on durable and attractive plant containers, and rents the plants to hotels, offices and business establishments. The renting of the plants maybe on a weekly, monthly or semi-annual basis. They are also the ones responsible in maintaining or replacing the plants when needed. They offer their landscaping and maintenance services on a contract basis.

Orchid Conservation. Downloaded from http: Micropropagation Of Orchids.

New York: Orchid Micropropagation Training Manual. Philippine Journal of Crop Science 34 S1. Techno Courier. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Metro Manila: Vol II, p. Rizal Technological University. Waling-Waling Review. Philippine Orchid Society, IX, 1: Seedlings Orchidaceae In Vitro". Rizal Technological University,. Philippine Orchid Society, X, 2: Philippine Orchid Society, X, 1: Developments in Crop Science. Plant Tissue Culture: Elsevier Science Publishers B.

The Netherlands, U. The Orchids of the Philippines. Module on Horticulture — Plant Tissue Culture. Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture. Personal Communication. During one of the meeting of the Orchid Conservation Network of the Philippines. Bicutan, Taguig, Metro Manila: A Selection of Native Philippine Orchids. KANG, L. A new solution for germination of orchid seeds. KYTE, L. Plants from Test Tubes. Timber Press. Introduction to Floriculture.

Academic Press, Inc. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Traditional Uses.


The Houston Orchid Society. Zamora, A. Laguna, Philippines: Philippine Association for Plant Tissue Culture. Souvenir Program Convention Year The Philippines Recommends for Orchids. Knudson C. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Orchids at Kew. Orchid Micropropagation. Ornamental Crops Division, Dept.

University of the Philippines at Los Banos. Orchidiana Philippiniana. Eugenio Lopez Foundation, Inc. Ramon C. Barba and Dr. Lilian F. Weigh the following chemical reagents: Potassium Nitrate KNO3 5.

Calcium Nitrate Ca NO3 2. Dissolve the following chemical reagents one at a time in a glass beaker with ml distilled water using a magnetic stirrer. When all the salts are dissolve, pour enough distilled water to make a ml solution. Pour in a brown bottle, and label Name of solution, Date Prepared. Store stock solution in the refrigerator. Use 50 ml of this stock in making 1 L medium. Magnesium Sulfate Stock Seperated from the Macroelement stock 1.

Weigh 2. Dissolve in enough distilled water to make a 1 Liter stock. Manganese Sulfate MnSO4. H2O 0. Boric Acid H3BO3 0. Zinc Sulfate ZnSO4. Copper Sulfate CuSO4. Use 5 ml of this stock in making 1 L medium. Thiamin HCl 0. Pyridoxin HCl 0. Nicotinic acid 0. Glycine 0. Myoinositol Stock Optional 1. Myo-Inositol 5. Ascorbic acid 1. Arginine 2. Tyrosine 0. Ferrous Sesquestrene Stock 1. Weigh 1. Measure the following solutions: RM Macro Stock 50 ml b.

Magnesium sulfate stock 50 ml c. RM Micro Stock 5 ml d. RM Vitamins Stock 5 ml e. Myo-Inositol Stock 5 ml f. Ferrous Sesquestrene Stock 5 ml g. Sucrose 20 grams h. Agar 8 grams i. Coconut water Buko type ml j. Yeast Extract 1 gram k. Tomato Puree 10 grams l. Banana Homogenate Bungulan 50 grams 2. In 1 L beaker, place ml distilled water and Agar. Stir and Heat mixture in a stirring hot plate until it boils. Remove it from the hot plate when the agar has completely melted and combine it with the rest of the solution.

Adjust pH to 5. Dispense the mixture in individual culture jars catsup or mayonnaise bottle. Cap bottles with plastic or metal caps, then wrap cap with used bond papers and rubberbands. Sterilize in the pressure cooker at 15 psi for 30 minutes. Then place the culture media in the culture room to cool. Use it after 1 week. R Media is brownish red in color when sterilized with its distinctive odor. Potassium nitrate KNO3 In the preparation of stock solution, Tricalcium phosphate will not usually dissolve.

To solve this problem, make the stock solution more acidic by adding 1 N HCl. Major Salts MS Macro — 10 x 1. H2O 3. In a mL glass beaker, pour mL of distilled water 3. Dissolve the salts above one at a time in distilled water, stirring each time briskly. Once all are dissolved, add enough distilled water to the mL mark. Store the stock solution in a brown bottle. Place label and the date the stock was made. Store in the refrigerator.

This stock solution is 10 times the formula concentration. Micropropagation of Orchids , Third Edition Author s: Tim Wing Yam Joseph Arditti. First published: Print ISBN: Culture media and vessels Techniques and procedures for both orchids which were previously cultured and for those which were not Plant hormones and growth regulators Media components Methods for tissue decontamination Historical information Procedures for the cultivation for plantlets which have been removed from flasks Sources of light and illumination methods Written by two globally acknowledged experts in the field, the third edition of this definitive text on the micropropagation of orchids is a detailed and comprehensive collection of procedures and methods for multiplying orchids, including organ, tissue, and cell culture techniques in vitro and is intended for researchers in plant science and propagation, professional and amateur orchid growers, and plant breeding professionals.

Volume I: Micropropagation of Orchids Free Access. Summary PDF Request permissions. Volume II: Volume III: Free Access. PDF Request permissions.

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Returning user.Production of Secondary Metabolites - important in medicinal orchids or with scented flowers or production of pigments; production of pharma-therapeutic important metabolites metabolites not used by plant in their growth.

Banana Homogenate Bungulan 50 grams 2. In vitro leaf segment culture of Vanda testacea Lindl. To help prevent browning, dissect under fresh sterile antioxidant solution. Consider propagating seed from rare plants in your collection.