But let's discuss the USMC definition of a sniper as contained in FMFM B. That FMFM states that a sniper is a Marine highly trained in field craft. MARINE SNIPER 93 CONFIRM ED KILLS CHARLES HENDERSON PDF conversion by Grog * ACKNOWLEDGMENTS No author has ever written a book totally. Full text of "U.S. Marine Corps Sniper bilgedumarre.ga (PDFy mirror)". See other formats. FMFM B Sniping U.S. Marine Corps PCN 00 DEPARTMENT.
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SHOOTER Also by Donald A. Davis Lightning Strike The Last Man on the Moon ( with Gene Ceman) Dark Waters (with Lee Vy. Read Marine Sniper PDF - 93 Confirmed Kills by Charles Henderson Berkley Caliber Books | The explosive true story of Sergeant Carlos. Marine sniper Gunnery Sergeant Carlos Norman Hathcock II was one of them. His exploits became legendary within the. Marine Corps. Although his records.
After several years of war and heavy losses on the Eastern Front, the German army was forced to rely more heavily on enlisting teenage soldiers. Due to lack of training in more complex group tactics, and thanks to rifle training provided by the Hitlerjugend , those soldiers were often used as autonomous left-behind snipers.
While an experienced sniper would take a few lethal shots and retreat to a safer position, those young boys, due both to a disregard for their own safety and to lack of tactical experience would frequently remain in a concealed position and fight until they ran out of ammunition or were killed or wounded. While this tactic generally ended in the demise of the sniper, giving rise to the nickname "Suicide Boys" that was given to those soldiers, this irrational behavior proved quite disruptive to the Allied forces' progress.
After World War II, many elements of German sniper training and doctrine were copied by other countries. In the Pacific War , the Empire of Japan trained snipers. In the jungles of Asia and the Pacific Islands, snipers posed a serious threat to U. Japanese snipers were specially trained to use the environment to conceal themselves. Japanese snipers used foliage on their uniforms and dug well-concealed hide-outs that were often connected with small trenches.
There was no need for long range accuracy because most combat in the jungle took place within a few hundred meters.
Japanese snipers were known for their patience and ability to remain hidden for long periods. They almost never left their carefully camouflaged hiding spots. This meant that whenever a sniper was in the area, the location of the sniper could be determined after the sniper had fired a few shots. The Allies used their own snipers in the Pacific, notably the U.
Marines , who used M Springfield rifles. Common sniper rifles used during the Second World War include: The Italians trained few snipers and supplied them with a scoped Carcano Model Military sniper training aims to teach a high degree of proficiency in camouflage and concealment, stalking, observation and map reading as well as precision marksmanship under various operational conditions.
Trainees typically shoot thousands of rounds over a number of weeks, while learning these core skills. Snipers are trained to squeeze the trigger straight back with the ball of their finger, to avoid jerking the gun sideways. Sometimes a sling is wrapped around the weak arm or both to reduce stock movement. The key to sniping is accuracy, which applies to both the weapon and the shooter. The weapon should be able to consistently place shots within tight tolerances. A sniper must have the ability to accurately estimate the various factors that influence a bullet's trajectory and point of impact such as: Mistakes in estimation compound over distance and can decrease lethality or cause a shot to miss completely.
Snipers zero their weapons at a target range or in the field. This is the process of adjusting the scope so that the bullet's points-of-impact is at the point-of-aim centre of scope or scope's cross-hairs for a specific distance.
A sandbag can serve as a useful platform for shooting a sniper rifle, although any soft surface such as a rucksack will steady a rifle and contribute to consistency.
Many police and military sniper rifles come equipped with an adjustable bipod. Range and accuracy vary depending on the cartridge and specific ammunition types that are used. Typical ranges for common battle field cartridges are as follows:.
Servicemen volunteer for the rigorous sniper training and are accepted on the basis of their aptitude, physical ability, marksmanship, patience and mental stability. Military snipers may be further trained as forward air controllers FACs to direct air strikes or forward observers FOs to direct artillery or mortar fire. From , the Russian armed forces has run newly developed sniper courses in military district training centres. In place of the Soviet practice of mainly squad sharpshooters, which were often designated during initial training and of whom only few become snipers per se , "new" Army snipers are to be trained intensively for 3 months for conscripts or longer for contract soldiers.
The training program includes theory and practice of countersniper engagements, artillery spotting and coordination of air support. The method of sniper deployment, according to the Ministry of Defence, is likely to be one three-platoon company at the brigade level, with one of the platoons acting independently and the other two supporting the battalions as needed. The range to the target is measured or estimated as precisely as conditions permit and correct range estimation becomes absolutely critical at long ranges, because a bullet travels with a curved trajectory and the sniper must compensate for this by aiming higher at longer distances.
As an example, for a typical military sniping cartridge such as 7. This means that if the sniper incorrectly estimated the distance as meters when the target was in fact meters away, the bullet will be millimeters lower than expected by the time it reaches the target.
Laser rangefinders may be used, and range estimation is often the job of both parties in a team.
The average human head is millimeters 5. To determine the range to a target without a laser rangefinder, the sniper may use the mil dot reticle on a scope to accurately find the range. Mil dots are used like a slide rule to measure the height of a target, and if the height is known, the range can be as well. The USMC standard is that 1 mil that is, 1 milliradian equals 3. Many commercial manufacturers use 3.
It is important to note that angular mil mil is only an approximation of a milliradian and different organizations use different approximations. At longer ranges, bullet drop plays a significant role in targeting.
These are tuned to both a specific class of rifle and specific ammunition. Every bullet type and load will have different ballistics. If the same bullet was shot with grain Shooting uphill or downhill is confusing for many because gravity does not act perpendicular to the direction the bullet is traveling.
Thus, gravity must be divided into its component vectors. Only the fraction of gravity equal to the cosine of the angle of fire with respect to the horizon affects the rate of fall of the bullet, with the remainder adding or subtracting negligible velocity to the bullet along its trajectory. To find the correct zero, the sniper multiplies the actual distance to the range by this fraction and aims as if the target were that distance away. For example, a sniper who observes a target meters away at a degree angle downhill would multiply the range by the cosine of 45 degrees, which is 0.
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The resulting distance will be meters. This number is equal to the horizontal distance to the target. All other values, such as windage, time-to-target, impact velocity, and energy will be calculated based on the actual range of meters. Recently, a small device known as a cosine indicator has been developed.
Windage plays a significant role, with the effect increasing with wind speed or the distance of the shot. The slant of visible convections near the ground can be used to estimate crosswinds, and correct the point of aim. All adjustments for range, wind, and elevation can be performed by aiming off the target, called "holding over" or Kentucky windage.
The shooter must remember to return the scope to zeroed position. Adjusting the scope allows for more accurate shots, because the cross-hairs can be aligned with the target more accurately, but the sniper must know exactly what differences the changes will have on the point-of-impact at each target range.
For moving targets, the point-of-aim is ahead of the target in the direction of movement. Known as "leading" the target, the amount of "lead" depends on the speed and angle of the target's movement as well as the distance to the target.
For this technique, holding over is the preferred method. The term "hide site" refers to a covered and concealed position from which a sniper and his team can conduct surveillance or fire at targets.
A good hide conceals and camouflages the sniper effectively, provides cover from enemy fire and allows a wide view of the surrounding area. The main purpose of ghillie suits and hide sites is to break up the outline of a person with a rifle. Many snipers use ghillie suits to hide and stay hidden. Ghillie suits vary according to the terrain into which the sniper wishes to blend.
For example, in dry grassland the sniper will typically wear a ghillie suit covered in dead grass. Shot placement, which is where on the body the sniper is aiming, varies with the type of sniper. These shots depend on tissue damage, organ trauma, and blood loss to kill the soldier. Body shots are used because the chest is a larger target. Police snipers, who generally shoot at much shorter distances, may attempt a more precise shot at particular parts of body or particular devices: In a high-risk or hostage-taking situation where a suspect is imminently threatening to kill a hostage, police snipers may take head shots to ensure an instant kill.
The snipers aim for the medulla oblongata to sever the spine from the brain. While this is believed to prevent the target from reflexively firing their weapon, there is evidence that any brain-hit is sufficient. Snipers are trained for the detection, identification, and location of a targeted soldier in sufficient detail to permit the effective employment of lethal and non-lethal means. Since most kills in modern warfare are by crew-served weapons , reconnaissance is one of the most effective uses of snipers.
They use their aerobic conditioning, infiltration skills and excellent long-distance observation equipment optical scopes and tactics to approach and observe the enemy. In this role, their rules of engagement typically let them shoot at high-value targets of opportunity, such as enemy officers.
The targets may be personnel or high-value materiel military equipment and weapons but most often they target the most important enemy personnel such as officers or specialists e. Other personnel they might target include those who pose an immediate threat to the sniper, like dog handlers, who are often employed in a search for snipers. If possible, snipers shoot in descending order by rank , or if rank is unavailable, they shoot to disrupt communications.
A sniper equipped with the correct rifle can target radar dishes, water containers, the engines of vehicles, and any number of other targets. Other rifles, such as the. Other calibers, such as the.
Often in situations with multiple targets, snipers use relocation. After firing a few shots from a certain position, snipers move unseen to another location before the enemy can determine where they are and mount a counter-attack. Snipers will frequently use this tactic to their advantage, creating an atmosphere of chaos and confusion. In other, rarer situations, relocation is used to eliminate the factor of wind.
As sniper rifles are often extremely powerful and consequently loud, it is common for snipers to use a technique known as sound masking. When employed by a highly skilled marksman, this tactic can be used as a substitute for a noise suppressor.
Very loud sounds in the environment, such as artillery shells air bursting or claps of thunder, can often mask the sound of the shot.
This technique is frequently used in clandestine operations , infiltration tactics , and guerrilla warfare. Due to the surprise nature of sniper fire, high lethality of aimed shots and frustration at the inability to locate and counterattack snipers, sniper tactics have a significant negative effect on morale.
Extensive use of sniper tactics can be used to induce constant stress and fear in opposing forces, making them afraid to move about or leave cover. In many ways, the psychological impact imposed by snipers is quite similar to those of landmines , booby-traps , and IEDs constant threat, high "per event" lethality, inability to strike back. Historically, captured snipers are often summarily executed.
As a result, if a sniper is in imminent danger of capture, he may discard any items sniper rifle, laser rangefinder, etc. The risk of captured snipers being summarily executed is explicitly referred to in Chapter 6 of US Army doctrine document FM Historically, units that suffered heavy and continual casualties from urban sniper fire and were frustrated by their inability to strike back effectively often have become enraged.
Such units may overreact and violate the laws of land warfare concerning the treatment of captured snipers. This tendency is magnified if the unit has been under the intense stress of urban combat for an extended time.
It is vital that commanders and leaders at all levels understand the law of land warfare and understand the psychological pressures of urban warfare. It requires strong leadership and great moral strength to prevent soldiers from releasing their anger and frustration on captured snipers or civilians suspected of sniping at them. The negative reputation and perception of snipers can be traced back to the American Revolution , when American "Marksmen" intentionally targeted British officers, an act considered uncivilized by the British Army at the time this reputation was cemented during the Battle of Saratoga , when Benedict Arnold allegedly ordered his marksmen to target British General Simon Fraser , an act that won the battle and French support.
To demoralize enemy troops, snipers can follow predictable patterns.
During the 26th of July Movement in the Cuban Revolution , the revolutionaries led by Fidel Castro always killed the foremost man in a group of President Batista 's soldiers. This effectively decreased the army's willingness to search for rebel bases in the mountains. An alternative approach to this psychological process is to kill the second man in the row, leading to the psychological effect of nobody wanting to follow the "leader".
The occurrence of sniper warfare has led to the evolution of many counter-sniper tactics in modern military strategies. These aim to reduce the damage caused by a sniper to an army, which can often be harmful to both combat capabilities and morale. The risk of damage to a chain of command can be reduced by removing or concealing features that would otherwise indicate an officer's rank.
Modern armies tend to avoid saluting officers in the field, and eliminate rank insignia on battle dress uniforms BDU. Officers can seek maximum cover before revealing themselves as good candidates for elimination through actions such as reading maps or using radios. Friendly snipers can be used to hunt the enemy sniper. Besides direct observation, defending forces can use other techniques. These include calculating the trajectory of a bullet by triangulation.
Traditionally, triangulation of a sniper's position was done manually, though radar-based technology has recently become available.
Once located, the defenders can attempt to approach the sniper from cover and overwhelm them. The United States military is funding a project known as RedOwl Robot Enhanced Detection Outpost With Lasers , which uses laser and acoustic sensors to determine the exact direction from which a sniper round has been fired.
The more rounds fired by a sniper, the greater the chance the target has of locating him.
The doll was then presented as if it were a real man sloppily covering himself. Usually, Soviet snipers were unable to resist the temptation of an apparently easy kill.
Once the angle where the bullet came from was determined, a large caliber gun, such as a Lahti L "Norsupyssy" "Elephant rifle" anti-tank rifle was fired at the sniper to kill him. Other tactics include directing artillery or mortar fire onto suspected sniper positions, the use of smoke screens , placing tripwire -operated munitions, mines , or other booby-traps near suspected sniper positions. Even dummy trip-wires can be placed to hamper sniper movement. If anti-personnel mines are unavailable, it is possible to improvise booby-traps by connecting trip-wires to hand grenades , smoke grenades or flares.
Though these may not kill a sniper, they will reveal their location. Booby-trap devices can be placed near likely sniper hides, or along the probable routes to and from positions. Knowledge of sniper field-craft will assist in this task. The use of canine units had been very successful, especially during the Vietnam War.
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The use of sniping in the sense of shooting at relatively long range from a concealed position to murder came to public attention in a number of sensational U. However, these incidents usually do not involve the range or skill of military snipers; in all three cases the perpetrators had U. News reports will often inaccurately use the term sniper to describe anyone shooting with a rifle at another person. Sniping has been used in asymmetric warfare situations, for example in the Northern Ireland Troubles , where in , the bloodiest year of the conflict, the majority of the soldiers killed were shot by concealed IRA riflemen.
The sniper is particularly suited to combat environments where one side is at a disadvantage. A careful sniping strategy can use a few individuals and resources to thwart the movement or other progress of a much better equipped or larger force. Sniping enables a few persons to instil terror in a much larger regular force — regardless of the size of the force the snipers are attached to. It is widely accepted that sniping, while effective in specific instances, is much more effective as a broadly deployed psychological attack or as a force-multiplier.
Snipers are less likely to be treated mercifully than non-snipers if captured by the enemy. In , the U. However, shortly after the initial invasion, violence against coalition forces and among various sectarian groups led to asymmetric warfare with the Iraqi insurgency and civil war between many Sunni and Shia Iraqis.
Through to November the Army had attributed 28 of 2, U. Training materials obtained by U. Some sniper teams in Afghanistan have killed large numbers of Taliban in quite short periods of time. For example, while in Helmand Province, two British snipers part of the Welsh Guards Battle group shot dead a total of 75 Taliban in only 40 days during the summer of In one session of duty, lasting just two hours, they shot and killed eight Taliban.
On another occasion, the same team scored a "Quigley" i. Taliban snipers have themselves caused problems for coalition forces. For example, over a four-month period in early , two Taliban snipers shot dead two British soldiers and wounded six others at an outpost in Qadrat, Helmand province. Sniper activity was reported during the Arab Spring civil unrest in Libya in , both from anti-governmental  and pro-governmental  supporters, and in Syria at least from pro-government   forces.
Even before firearms were available, soldiers such as archers were specially trained as elite marksmen. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Sniper disambiguation. Main articles: I do the same sort of thing with my rifle.
Grab a couple of your boys and go check it out. Dusk had not yet settled over the city, so the temperature still simmered in the nineties, and children who resembled the walking dead begged for food as we passed. Some three hundred thousand people had already starved to death in Somalia, and many more would die as long as the feuding warlords chose to violently expand their fiefdoms rather than feed and protect their people.
When I saw flies crawl on the face of a dead child, it was easy to hate the vicious fighters who were causing such slaughter.
We called the ragtag militia "Skinnies" and "Sammies. The old saying "Know your enemy" does not apply in such cases, for some things are better left unknown. I had alerted my boys to be ready for a fight because once out of the stadium we never knew if someone would shoot at us.
There were always snaps of random gunfire sparking around Mogadishu, but the entire route to the command post of the Army's 10th Mountain Division, about a hundred yards off the 21 October, was quiet. The gates of the walled compound swung open as we approached, and we were welcomed by a colonel who apparently had been expecting the whole damned Marine Corps to come charging over the hill. Instead, they got me and about ten other guys.
The 10th Mountain, a strong division with thousands of combat troops, was spread out all over and beyond Mogadishu and had left only a few security troops to protect their headquarters, in the heart of a city that seethed with unrest.
Nevertheless, other than some chipped plaster on the outside walls, I saw no sign that any dangerous firefight had taken place.
The colonel didn't know he was dealing with a Marine sergeant, since we never wore rank insignia in combat situations, so he treated me as an equal. He escorted me up to the third floor of the command post building, and I put up a hand to shield my eyes from the glaring sunlight. Only six hundred yards away were three long warehouses that our intelligence sources said were packed to the rafters with weapons of the warlords. As long as the guns stayed inside, there was no problem, but if the militiamen decided to come out and play, they would be more than this group of cooks, bakers, and candlestick makers could handle.
A lot of people were hurrying around those warehouses, busy movement with nothing getting done, for they were not taking things in and out. Every so often, they would steal a glance over at us. Although there had been no more than the occasional harassing shot so far, I believed that these guys were doing more than just passing through the area and that the situation had the potential to worsen. I told the colonel I'd be right back, and my Marines and I sped back to the stadium, racing to beat the approaching darkness.
General Klimp, the commander of the Marines in Task Force Mogadishu, had been receiving similar reports from other intelligence sources, and by the time I got back to the stadium headquarters, his staff was already laying plans for how to deal with the situation brewing around the warehouses.
Ever since arriving at the stadium on the last day of , American forces had been out patrolling the dangerous streets and taking guns away from thugs. The orders were to let them surrender, but dealing with these maniacs one by one was a slow business. Klimp figured that if they were converging on the warehouses, we could bag a bunch at one time, so he gave orders to surround the buildings, not let anyone in or out, and blare a Psy Ops message over loudspeakers throughout the night telling the militias not to fight and to surrender at dawn.
With any luck, they would disobey. Klimp then told me to establish an overwatch position, and I once more hustled my boys back through the streets and back into the 10th Mountain compound.
By the time night fell, I was on the roof with three other snipers, a couple of guys with M machine guns, and a forward air controller, known as the FAC, to coordinate helicopter gunship backup when the ground troops moved in at dawn. I found a spot between an air-conditioner duct and the three-foot-high parapet that surrounded the roof and squeezed into a tight sitting position, my boots and butt making a solid three-point stance, elbows on knees and eye to the power Unertl telescope on the big SASR rifle, which rested on a pad across the parapet.
I had a marvelous field of view, and the powerful scope brought everything into such sharp relief that I felt I could reach out and physically touch the men moving around the warehouses. Measuring with our laser range finders, we jotted out green range cards to show the exact distance between us and every building, window, and pile of junk behind which an enemy might hide. As night finally came about P. I checked my weapon one more time-one big.
If something happened, I had no intention of letting it devolve into a fair fight. Few things in nature are as punishing as an African storm that tries to convert the parched land into a swamp in only a few hours. The scalding heat of the day vanishes in an instant, it is difficult even to breathe because so much water is falling, and the rain chills the bones and rapidly lowers the body temperature.
Just such a storm swept in from the Indian Ocean about an hour after nightfall. Our carefully prepared snipers' "hide" began to feel more like an icy swimming pool, and we took turns going inside to get a cup of hot coffee and stay dry for a few minutes. One of my boys tore the canvas top from a Humvee and ripped it into crude shelters, but there was no real escape from the pounding rain.
We were miserable. Worse, the sheets of rain degraded our night vision goggles and left us blind to what was going on around the warehouses, although we could hear people shouting and motors turning over. The Skinnies were making mischief. Dawn, the demanded time for surrender, approached. Our missile-carrying Cobra helicopters were inbound, guided by the FAC, who was working the radios beside me. Support more free survival info, by following us on: Counter Sniper Guide. Firearms — Combat Survival Weapons Improvised 7.
Antiarmor Weapons Subcourse IN FM Operations. FM Urban Operations. FM FM Explosives and Demolitions FM Tactics FM Combat Service Support. FM Training the Force. FM Battle Focused Training. FM Ranger Unit Operations.
FM Terrain Analysis. FM Countermobility. FM Survivability.The use of any optic will, over a fairly short period of time, produce eyestrain or fatigue, and the sniper pair will start to miss things without even realizing, due to reduced effectiveness of the eye's performance. The ability to release the shot without disturbing the aim is the basis of marksmanship and if the sniper cannot achieve this he will introduce inconsistency into his shooting and hence a loss of accuracy.
Retrieved 4 May London: Zed Books. Sometimes a sling is wrapped around the weak arm or both to reduce stock movement. I hit his weapon at 80 meters to save him ". Manufacturers endeavor to invent ammunition to cover all eventualities, and then to invent defenses against that ammunition, leading on to a new cycle of ammunition invention. Indeed, evidence shows that those inclined to use it as a means of terror against the innocent seem to have a much better grasp of its uses than do many military and police forces.
Sea Stories. Campbell, Neil and Alasdair Kean.
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