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Introduction to modern linguistics. Responsibility: Fatima Sadiqi, Moha Ennaji. Imprint: Casablanca: Afrique-Orient, c Physical description: p. ; 23 cm. MOHA ENNAJI and FATIMA SADIQI is the author of Applications of Modern Linguistics ( avg rating, 3 ratings, 1 review). Introduction to Modern Linguistics Fatima Sadiqi & Moha Enna. Abdellah Chakim ; 25 videos; 1, views; Last updated on 27, Play all. Share.
The contradictory attitudes toward Arabization reveal the complexity of modern Moroccan society, its multilingual aspect, its different social and political trends. On the whole, there seems to be a compromise as to the linguistic option that is good for the country and its future: most Moroccans today would favour French-Standard Arabic bilingualism for pragmatic reasons; French is used in technical and scientific settings and for international communication, and Standard Arabic is reserved for cultural, literary, religious and political discourses see Ennaji Moroccan Arabic and Berber are the languages of change, reflecting the uniqueness of Morocco and the dynamism of its people.
They need to be preserved as they express the daily life of Moroccans. Changes Regarding Nationalism and Language The most prominent change that has occurred over the last generation is the implementation of the Arabization policy with the aim of revitalizing and modernizing Standard Arabic.
The overall goal is to generalize the use of Standard Arabic to all domains as a language of wider communication instead of French, which is considered by conservatives a threat to the linguistic and cultural identity of the country. The process of Arabization was meant to modernize and standardize this language in order to meet the needs of the modern Arab state.
It also aimed to replace French in many fields, particularly in education and mass media. Given the connection between Standard Arabic, Islam and national identity, Arabization may be considered a revival of the Arabic language and national identity. One of the purposes of Arabization is the assimilation of Berbers into Arab cultural identity. The process of Arabization led to the modernization and revitalization of Standard Arabic; the official recognition of Berber as part of the national heritage and cultural authenticity, and its introduction in Moroccan primary schools are good examples of the process of "ethnolinguistic revival".
This revival is mainly due to the fact that both Standard Arabic and Berber play a strong symbolic role in the national identity of Morocco, and that both of them are somewhat threatened by foreign languages, chiefly French. The attempts to revitalize Berber are motivated by the fact that Berber is the native language of about half of the Moroccan population.
This language has been in regression under the influence of French, Standard Arabic and Moroccan Arabic. To alleviate this threat on Berber, Berber has recently been officially recognized as part and parcel of the national cultural identity.
As a token of this recognition, the Royal Institute of Amazigh Culture was created in , with the objective of promoting Amazigh Berber language and culture in education, administration and media. Language attitudes The ethnolinguistic revival has affected the attitudes of people toward languages and varieties before affecting the functions and domains of use of these languages and varieties. Moroccan people are generally proud of their mother tongues and national languages.
Although attitudes toward the different mother tongues and languages have changed among the people, these attitudes have to a certain extent long been ignored by governments and decision- makers.
As a result, Arabization has succeeded only partially after four decades of independence and struggle for the restoration of Arabic language and culture. Berber and Moroccan Arabic are only considered a means of communication in intimate contexts and transactions, but they have recently become symbols of identity and authenticity nationwide and in intergroup relations.
At the academic level, conservative thinkers and purists who are mostly educated in Arabic claim the necessity to reinforce Arab nationalism and establish Arab unity, the purpose of which is to revive Arab-Islamic values and beliefs and gradually exclude the ex-colonizer's language and culture, and Western values more generally. Aljabri and Almandjra are among the enthusiastic Arab academics who support Arab nationalism.
At the population level, good values are associated with the Arab-Islamic culture. People wrongly associate Islamic beliefs with Arabic language and culture.
For Berber-language activists, Berber ought to be restored and revitalized through teaching it and using it in formal and informal settings. They reject the idea of Berber becoming a memory language and fight to turn it into a language of active usage and everyday communication. However, for conservative Arabophones, the promotion of Berber may be a danger for national unity and political stability. These views are purely received ideas which aim to maintain a sociocultural status quo cf.
Boukous , Ennaji , Nationalists, on the other hand, argue that only a pro-Arabic strategy can help to consolidate 14 Language, Nationalism and Gender in Morocco the political independence of the country and preserve its national unity.
The existence of two native languages, Moroccan Arabic and Berber, reduces the enthusiasm for Arab unity and nationalism.
Morocco today experiences two sorts of revival: the revival of the Arabic language and Arab-Islamic culture and the attempts to promote mother tongues like Berber and Moroccan Arabic, which themselves are associated with popular national culture. Today, the supporters of Berber language and culture claim that it is necessary to recognize Berber as a national official language side by side with Arabic cf. Ennaji Chapter 4. Thus, nationalism has a great impact on language attitudes, as well as language use and choice.
The stronger the feelings of belonging to a certain group, the stronger the desire of promoting the language of this group. Nationalism and the 'ethnolinguistic revival' have affected mother tongues, Classical and Standard Arabic and the foreign languages in use.
For instance, educated people mix Standard and Moroccan Arabic; some writers like Mohamed Choukry and Amine El Alami tend to use the Moroccan Arabic in their writings because it truly reveals the authentic aspects of Moroccan daily life and cultural identity. In the following section, we will look at the gender dimension in the multilingual context of Morocco.
We will show that gender and the contemporary feminist movement are closely linked to nationalism and to State-building. Gender and Nationalism Gender is intricately linked to nationalism in Morocco. The colonial history of Morocco largely contributed to the shaping of nationalism, as well as the destinies of the women of that country. During the Protectorate and as part of the their struggle for independence, the two nationalist icons Allal Al-Fassi and Mohamed Hassan Ouazzani called for the emancipation of women for quite different nationalistic projects of society.
After independence, the new decision-makers espoused the Protectorate male feminist views for more or less the same reasons. For example, in , King Mohamed V unveiled his eldest daughter 16 Language, Nationalism and Gender in Morocco in public and called for the necessity to emancipate women in order to develop society.
Overall, male nation-linked feminism endeavoured to prove that Morocco could not progress without educating and training women. The interest in educating women that the intellectuals, the state, and political parties called for was not motivated by a genuine interest in the liberation of women as individuals but by larger social projects.
As a result, in educating their daughters, middle and upper classes sought some kind of social prestige cf.
Walters Within this overall context, the choice of languages was very significant: traditionalists like Allal Al-Fassi opted for Arabic and modernists like Mohamed Hassan Ouazzani opted for French. Indeed, language choice was an interesting aspect of national expression as languages carried significant social meanings see Section above.
Language choice was also linked to gender and national identity. It was the new post-independence bourgeois class that produced the first women pharmacists, jurists, medical doctors, university professors, etc. This liberal trend was accompanied by changes in dress, as well as other social practices such as the adoption of the French style and way of life.
COMPLETE PUBLICATION LIST FATIMA SADIQI
However, this style never succeeded in replacing traditional Moroccan practices and ways of life, including dress. French is an urban super ordinate second language which is closely linked to education. It has, over the years, become very useful in the private sector.
The general attitude to French is positive. Even in conservative families, a woman speaking French to her children is perceived positively. In spite of the fact that the majority of Moroccan women do not have easy access to French, this language is more favoured by women than by men.
In fact, women tend to display proficiency in French more frequently than proficiency in Standard Arabic.
The reason for this is that French is less related to cultural 18 Language, Nationalism and Gender in Morocco identity than Standard Arabic, and, thus, less threatening to the male status quo. This makes sense in Moroccan patriarchal and sexist culture. Women are aware of this and use French to gain, use, and maintain social power. Overall, French is more of a female language than Moroccan Arabic. When compared to Standard Arabic, French displays a different aspect: both languages have social power, but each power carries a specific symbolic meaning in the Moroccan context: French is crucial in Moroccan post-colonial administration and politics, and Standard Arabic is a symbol of a glorious past and cultural identity.
The above overview reveals that languages and nationalism interact with gender in Morocco. Women are closer to Berber and Moroccan Arabic than men because Moroccan society clings to its indigenous traditions, but assigns the responsibility to guard those traditions to women.
On the other hand, the majority of women are distanced from literate languages because they are less subject to schooling. Of the two literate languages, educated women are closer to French.
In practical terms, Moroccan women cope with a heavily patriarchal society. Rural women are predominantly illiterate and, thus, use female oral literature to empower themselves, and educated urban women use their language skills code-switching for the same purpose see Sadiqi Chapter 4.
Their strategies of communication belong to oral genres that constitute part and parcel of Moroccan deep culture. Illiterate women in Morocco use two mediums of orality: traditional skills and oral literature genres. It is through these two mediums that illiterate women mark their presence in the community and it is also through them that they sometimes subvert the roles that patriarchy assigns them.
In addition to traditional skills, Moroccan women use oral literature as a medium of self-expression. Various female oral genres are recognized in Moroccan culture, the most important of which are: folktales and folk songs. They take the activity of telling stories very seriously; they dramatize events and overemphasize actions in order to make their stories sound important.
Another female oral genre in Morocco is folk songs.
Traditional Grammar Vs Linguistics
Moroccan folk songs are sung in Berber or Moroccan Arabic. Typical folk songs are usually delivered by illiterate people. Women folk singers have always played an important part in oral literature and culture in Morocco.
Their strategies of communication are different from the ones used by illiterate women. The most important such strategy is code-switching. Code-switching is defined in sociolinguistics as the use of more than one language simultaneously in conversation. Code-switching is a characterizing feature of multilingual settings like Morocco.
Linguists have proved that code- switching is a linguistically self-sufficient style of speech and that code-switchers master the languages they mix and are perfectly competent in them. Code- switching presupposes bi- or multi- lingualism and, thus, indicates positive social attributes in Moroccan society. It also indicates composite identities that are aware of the social value of each of the languages used. Code-switching presupposes competence not only in two linguistic codes, but also in appropriately manipulating the two codes in real life contexts.
As four major languages are used in Morocco, code-switching often takes place between a more and a less powerful language and is bound to be sensitive to gender. Switching between Berber and French is rather rare, although switching from Rifian Berber to and from Spanish occurs in the north of Morocco.
It is common only in urban areas and involves educated bilingual women. Studies have shown that this type of code-switching is more prevalent in the speech of women than in that of men. Frequently, women insert whole sentences in French into their Moroccan Arabic or Berber conversations. In urban settings, code-switching is a female type of communicative style. This skill is encouraged since childhood, as little girls are more strongly encouraged to use French in their Arabic than are little boys.
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Makhoukh, H. Es-saiydy, M. Moubtassime, S. A Grammar of Amazigh Berber b. Applications of Modern Linguistics , in co-authorship with F. Sadiqi, Casablanca: Afrique Orient. Introduction to Modern Linguistics , in co-authorship with F. London: Routledge Edited in collaboration with F. Red Sea Press.
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About this book
Zilfi ed. International Media Articles 1. Gender at the Heart of the New Moroccan Constitution.Article written for the Project Syndicate. However, Arabization is not the only factor that led to the birth and increase of fundamentalism in the region.
Firstly, French is practically used as a second language. London: Routledge. The Maghreb in general and Morocco in particular are characterized by multilingualism in the sense that many languages and varieties are used in different domains.
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